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    Anchoring, biases, curse of knowledge: Mistakes that lead to inaccurate judgements at work

    Synopsis

    Social scientists study how cognitive bias or stereotyping impacts workplace behaviours.

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    Your judgements are influenced by what springs most easily to mind.
    Everyone has his or her own worldview. But while interpreting or making judgements our brains are tuned in such a way that all of us are prone to making mistakes. Experts have identified more than 180 cognitive biases that warp the perception of what is real. Social scientists study how cognitive bias or stereotyping impacts workplace behaviours. This infographic — from School of Thought — lists 24 such mental mistakes that may lead to inaccurate judgements.

    Anchoring
    The first thing you judge influences your judgement of all that follows.

    Backfire effect
    When your core beliefs are challenged, it can cause you to believe even more strongly.

    Sunk cost fallacy

    You irrationally cling to things that have already cost you something.

    Confirmation bias
    You favour things that confirm your existing beliefs.

    Barnum effect
    You see personal specifics in vague statements by filling in the gaps.

    Your preference for a just world makes you presume that it exists.Agencies
    Your preference for a just world makes you presume that it exists.


    Availability heuristic
    Your judgements are influenced by what springs most easily to mind.

    Dunning-kruger effect
    The more you know, the less confident you’re likely to be.

    Declinism
    You remember the past as better than it was, and expect the future to be worse than it will likely be.

    Curse of knowledge
    Once you understand something you presume it to be obvious to everyone.

    Just world hypothesis

    Your preference for a just world makes you presume that it exists.

    Framing effect
    You allow yourself to be unduly influenced by context and delivery.

    In-group bias
    You unfairly favour those who belong to your group.

    Fundamental attribution error
    You judge others on their character, but yourself on the situation.

    You believe your failures are due to external factors, yet you’re personally responsible for your successes.Agencies
    You believe your failures are due to external factors, yet you’re personally responsible for your successes.


    Placebo effect
    If you believe you’re taking medicine it can sometimes ‘work’ even if it’s fake.

    Halo effect

    How much you like someone, or how attractive they are, influences your other judgements of them.

    Bystander effect
    You presume someone else is going to do something in an emergency situation.

    Groupthink
    You let the social dynamics of a group situation override the best outcomes.

    Self-serving bias
    You believe your failures are due to external factors, yet you’re personally responsible for your successes.

    Reactance
    You’d rather do the opposite of what someone is trying to make you do.

    Negativity bias
    You allow negative things to disproportionately influence your thinking.

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    Pessimism bias
    You overestimate the likelihood of negative outcomes.

    Belief bias
    If a conclusion supports your existing beliefs, you’ll rationalise anything that supports it.

    Optimism bias
    You overestimate the likelihood of positive outcomes.

    Spotlight effect
    You overestimate how much people notice how you look and act.
    The Economic Times